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Fish Eyeball Removal Surgery

Yes, fish need surgery at times. Ever wonder what happens when a fish needs to have an eye removed? Check out this video!

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The Green Pea Myth

Constipated goldfish is the most widely over diagnosed case on the internet. There is not ONE peer-reviewed published paper about goldfish constipation and its treatments. Most commonly, goldfish “constipation” is misdiagnosed as a cure all for a sick fish. And in comes the main treatment… shelled green peas!

What is it about these tiny green globes of goodness that make most fish rise up from the almost dead?

One: They have almost no protein whatsoever, decreasing the amount of ammonia waste from your fish, decreasing the strain on your nitrogen cycle. Decreasing the ammonia waste from your system will make ANY fish better. Every 100 grams of green peas contains 5.4g of protein. Compare that to 100g of commercial fish flake and pellets having between 32-45g of protein.

Two: Green peas sink in water, therefore making fish dive to the bottom of their tank to eat, preventing excess air from ending up in their GI and swim bladder. Goldfish are physostomous, with a duct connecting their esophagus to their swim bladder. Considering the anatomy of some fancy goldfish varieties, these ducts are extremely short and therefore more air is able to get into the swim bladder, causing positive buoyancy issues. When fish eat at the surface, slurping food down like pigs, they can take in a lot of extra air. By feeding sinking peas, they don’t suck in as much air.

Three: Goldfish “indigestion” can be caused by an inappropriate diet. Goldfish, like all other carp, are omnivores, eating plants, bugs and almost anything tasty that fits in their mouths. In feeding them a flake or pelleted diet, you are aiming for a balanced diet. There are sooooo many fish foods out there, and a lot of them are based on educated guesses rather than actual research. As a fish owner, it is up to you to evaluate your fishes’ food to make sure it is appropriate. We have our most watched webinar on this very subject of reading fish food labels. Many of these “constipation” problems are from feeding very old food. After 6 months, your fish food has lost enough of the water-soluble vitamins, including vitamin C, that you are essentially feeding your fish cardboard. Getting a fresh bag of food, or switching the diet to our green peas (full of vitamins!), fixes almost all of the fish “indigestion” cases we see.

But what about all that fiber? 100g of peas contains 4.8g of fiber and most fish foods contain 3-5g of fiber, so it’s not really all that more fibrous.

All in all, peas are a low calorie treat that fish can enjoy. But are they magical, cure all tablets of greeny goodness? Sorry, but no.

Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Everyone always wants to know how to keep their fish system from becoming infested with some horrible disease that puts all their fish at risk. Well, it’s a lot simpler than you think!

  1. Quarantine. Quarantine. Quarantine. This includes plants and ALL NEW FISH. The stress of handling and transport is enough to make even the healthiest of fish turn on your tanks inhabitants. Fish cannot be sterilized and always have pathogens on them, including parasites, bacteria and fungi. Most problems occur when new fish, invertebrates or plants are added to an established system. Set up a separate hospital tank and have it at the ready whenever new fish are on their way in. 4-6 weeks is the MINIMUM requirement for all new additions. For more information, be sure to watch our Quarantine Practices webinar!
  2. Maintain your water quality through consistent maintenance, proper feeding and adequate filtration. Water quality is the #1 thing owners can do to keep their fish healthy. Get a test kit, know how to use it and what normal parameters look like. Not all fish systems will be identical! Keep up with your maintenance. If everything is a bit discombobulated, use these handy checklists for tanks and ponds.
  3. Feed your fish a good quality diet that is species appropriate. Look for a food with appropriate levels of protein, fat and carbohydrates. We are happy to give consults on diet for FREE. If you want to learn more about fish diets, watch our webinar.
  4. Note any signs of disease early and take precautionary measures. You set up that hospital tank, right? Learn the physical and behavioral signs of disease in fish through our free webinar.
  5. If you think something is wrong, ASK NOW! Don’t wait until a small problem becomes big and hard to manage. Our job is to help you take care of your fish, plain and simple. We can work within your budget to make sure your fish get the care they need. Call us at (831) 346-6151 or email hospital@cafishvet.com.

Follow those rules and your fish will thank you! Being healthy and disease free is the way to be, no matter what your species!

The Truth About Aquatic Plants

To plant or not to plant? As is the dilemma facing most freshwater tank and pond owners. Live plants can add beauty and filtration, but come with their own set of issues. If you are interested in pursing adding live plants to your system, be sure to read through the following points.

WAIT! I was told you can’t have plants in koi ponds! No matter what the purists say, you can absolutely have plants and koi together. You can also mix koi and goldfish, but that’s another article.

  • Your system needs to be producing nitrate in order for plants to thrive. If you constantly use an ammonia-binding additive or have a brand new tank, hold off on adding any plant life. Buy yourself a test kit and make sure your nitrogen cycle is established prior to getting those plants in there.
  • Plants can carry pathogens, especially if they were previously housed with fish. That means they need to be quarantined too! Set them up in your quarantine with a few fish to signal if there are any issues. You can also do a hydrogen peroxide dip that will take care of most bugs.
  • You will need to trim your plants regularly as parts die off. If you leave the rotting bits in your tank, you’re only making your ammonia levels worse. Make trimming your plants a regular part of your weekly maintenance and your system will thank you.
  • Fish will try to eat your plants. It doesn’t matter if you feed them the most awesome food on the planet, they will harass your plants if they’re simply bored. Don’t get too attached. You can try to create a buffer zone between plants and fish using mesh or netting. But, be prepared for some losses.
  • If you’re expecting a few plants to significantly decrease your nitrate levels, you will be sadly mistaken. The amount of plants you need to make a dent in your water quality is immense. If you want to use plants for filtration, consider adding a bog filter for ponds or an aquaponic system. Don’t expect those three fronds of anacharis to do the trick.
  • Any medications or treatments you add to the tank or pond will affect the plants. Salt treatments in particular can kill plants. However, if there is a disease in your system, the plants could be harboring pathogens. If you have a disease that could be hiding in your plants, make sure you treat the entire system appropriately. With some diseases, replacing the plants entirely may be the best option.

If you have any interest in adding plants to your system, but aren’t quite sure what to add, please call The Fish Vet Store at 831-728-7003

The Nitrogen Cycle

As you may well know, water quality is a significant aspect of pet fish health. Like the air we breathe, the water a fish swims in is directly linked to their overall health. As a fish veterinarian, we routinely test the water our patients swim in for various parameters. We discussed pH and kH previous, so today, let’s look at the nitrogen cycle.

 

As you may notice, the traditional nitrobacter and nitrosomas bacteria species have been omitted from this diagram. This is due to the fact that there are just SO MANY different bacteria species involved in nitrogen-fixation, that we cannot simply define them in these two genuses.

In a fish tank, a fish’s primary waste is ammonia. Ammonia is produced by the breakdown of protein, the main staple of most fishes’ diets. Ammonia is excreted out through the urinary tract and gills. Ammonia is highly toxic to fish, causing death and increased secondary illness, so it is converted, through nitrogen-fixing bacteria, into nitrite. Now, nitrite can be just as bad as ammonia. Methemoglobinemia, or “Brown Blood Disease,” is caused by a build-up of nitrite. Nitrite can bind to hemoglobin in the blood and outcompete oxygen. This causes a brown coloration and the fish will asphyxiate from lack of oxygen. Thankfully, more nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert nitrite into the final nitrate. Nitrate is safe for fish at low levels, but at higher levels, and depending on the fish species’ tolerance, can cause the same issues as high ammonia. Nitrate is removed from the system by aquatic plants or water changes.

In established systems (over 2 months old with no new fish or equipment), your ammonia should be ZERO. Most low readings indicate your filtration capacity is inadequate or secondary to overfeeding. The highest reading acceptable on our test kit is 0.1 mg/L. The traditional API freshwater master test kit ranges between 0-0.25, so attaining a 0.1 reading will not occur. Due to the broad range of values, a 0.25 reading may be a false positive (reporting a higher value than what is actually present).

There are many commercial additives for removing ammonia from your tank prior to the nitrogen cycle. Some can cause ammonia test kits to read falsely high. These additives are short-term solutions that should only be used with significant health issues. They are not a long term maintenance solution. You MUST establish your biological filtration (good bacteria) for long-term fish health. If you have persistent ammonia in your tank, consider the following solutions:

  • Is your filtration adequate? Tanks with higher bioloads (size and number of fish) will require more than standard filtration. When in doubt, always filter more than you should.
  • Are you feeding appropriately? Remember, ammonia is produced from breakdown of protein in a fish’s diet. More food = more ammonia. Check your protein levels! For more information on fish diets, read this.
  • Are you doing lots of water changes? If you are constantly removing ammonia, your nitrogen-fixing bacteria will never become established.
  • Is there ammonia in your source water? Check the level coming out of your tap or well to make sure! You may need to consider another water source.

There are also commercial additives that will “quick start” your nitrogen cycle. Sorry folks, but these are a complete scam. With the exception of one product that slightly shortened the establishment of your nitrogen cycle, it will take 4-6 weeks MINIMUM to get your tank properly cycled. By “cycled,” we mean the establishment of a complete nitrogen cycle with ammonia being converted all the way to nitrate. We recommend starting with very few fish and monitor your ammonia, nitrite and nitrate levels carefully!

If you have any more questions about fish and nitrogen cycles, please comment below.

How to Treat Disease in Fish

If you’ve ever read our other posts or watched our webinars, you may have noticed that we never tell you how to treat certain diseases. Although it’s one of the most common questions our staff is asked, treating disease is never as straightforward as a fish owner may think. As one of my colleagues put it recently, “I no longer treat disease; I treat systems.” When your fish gets sick, do you think of treating the fish or the environment in which it lives?

When comparing disease in a fish vs. a dog, your veterinarian will rarely ever ask, “what is the air quality in your house?” For fluffy pets, it is always assumed that they have suitable air to breathe. Veterinarians will rarely ever question this parameter unless you are talking about a fish. The watery environment in which a fish lives has a significantly increased impact than the air we breathe. (You’ve watched our water quality webinar, yes?) The increased density of water and the physiology of fish gill-water interaction can directly influence fish health. Fish live in a toilet, and there’s no avoiding that. Keeping your fish’s watery home within appropriate water quality parameters is the #1 thing you can do as a pet fish owner to keep your fish healthy.

And a big part of your fishes’ environment are the commensal bacteria living in your filtration. These magic beings don’t need any instructions or directions to do their part in keeping your fish healthy. By converting ammonia into its less toxic nitrate, they turn a watery death trap into a fish-safe home. However, any treatment you add to your tank, be it prescribed or over-the-counter, can affect those contributing bacteria. This is part of why treating disease in fish is very tricky. If you dump in a bunch of treatments that may or may not help your fish, you can wipe out all of the bacteria working in your favor. A lot of the over-the-counter medications are not validated by any third parties, and can do more harm than good.

Overall, treating diseases in any species is sometimes a straightforward process, provided that you can make the right diagnosis. Veterinarians train for years to make correct diagnoses and corresponding treatments. We are taught to be detectives and make sure to get the whole story rather than make assumptions based on simple physical appearances. Since aquatic medicine is an emerging field, many fish owners do not know that there are veterinarians who can help them. Asking Dr. Google a simple fish question can take owners down a rabbit hole of possibilities that very often lead them astray. Going to ask your local pet store can result in a bag full of home remedies that treat symptoms, not disease. Although there are many great fish stores and websites with loads of helpful information, knowing what is legitimate and woefully misleading can be hard to negotiate. By asking a veterinarian to assist you, you have a great guide to lead you to the right information and correct diagnosis, leading to treating your fish correctly the first time.

Find a fish veterinarian to assist you:

American Association of Fish Veterinarians

World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association

Don’t Tap on the Tank!

How does a fish interact with its watery environment? They have many of the same senses as we do: sight, taste, touch, smell and hearing. But, did you know that fish can sense vibrations in the water around them using a special organ called a lateral line? If you look closely at the side of any fish, you will see small holes along the lateral midline.

These little holes contain a gel-like medium and tiny hair cells. These hair cells pick up vibrations in the water and pass them along to the brain. This is how fish are able to school together in tight clumps and can feel your net moving towards them from behind. This the main reasoning behind the “don’t tap on the tank” warning. Tapping on the side of a fish tank is the human equivalent of having your body right next to multiple loudspeakers. You can feel your entire body vibrating from the noise. This is how a fish feels when you tap on the side of their tank and send pulses throughout the water. And remember, water is a much better conductor than air.

The same sensation occurs when you have a speaker with music next to your tank, or a 24-hour gym facility moves next door to your fish hospital. Bass (frequency, not the fish) carries very strong vibrations and with constant bombardment, fish get stressed, and like in humans, decreased immune function. People are able to walk away from sources of stress, but not fish. By continuing to stress out your animals with vibrations, you can kill them. Death occurs secondary to a significantly weakened immune system allowing other bacteria and pathogens to take over.

So, don’t be a Darla. Keep your fingers, speakers and gyms to yourself.

https://giphy.com/embed/109RutRrTGY97a

via GIPHY

“Coming in Hot”

Hospital codes can be universal or for one facility. When our vet tells the office, “coming in hot,” it means we have a patient inbound to the hospital and will try to get there as soon as possible. Staff is responsible for making sure the tank for that fish is ready and standing by with oxygen and basic triage supplies, just in case.

Have you ever driven a fish in a car before? How do you drive “fast” with a fish in the car?

The answer: very carefully. When we pack fish for movement, they are usually in a plastic bag with an airstone running off a pump and power converter. They are essentially the same as a very full cup of coffee. Not hot coffee, but at least a couple gallons of coffee. If you stop too fast or hit the gas too hard, there’s going to be a tsunami in your car. You can get up to highway speeds, but it’s going to take a little distance. Slow acceleration is the key, and it does take some practice.

And due to a fish’s sensitivity to vibration, we’re limited in our tune selection. Basically, anything with bass is OUT. Our vet prefers books on tape for long fish transports or no radio for short trips.

So, the next time you’re driving behind a giant fish car and you’re comparing their driving capacity to your grandma’s, remember, they might have a fish in there and are just avoiding a flood and have no music to entertain them.

pH and kH

It’s time for everyone’s favorite topic: water quality!

Many of our clients purchase “master” test kits which include: ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, low and high pH. This is a great collection of parameters to start with, but what about kH?

For those of you unfamiliar with kH, kH measures the buffering capacity of your water. Buffers bind to free hydrogen ions (H+) and keep them out of solution. Since your pH is a direct measure of [H+] in your system, kH directly impacts pH. And remember that high [H+] = more acidic and low [H+] = more basic.

(For those of you who are confusing this with gH, or total hardness: gH measures the amount of calcium and magnesium in your water. Although this may be a component of your kH, they are separate parameters entirely.)

So, if your kH levels are too low, all the H+ your fish discharge due to metabolic processes can build up and crash your pH. Adequate kH levels will keep your pH consistent throughout the day, regardless of what your fish and filters are doing. Knowing your tanks kH is an essential component to any fish keeper’s database. There are simple tests available that will make your testing a true “master kit.”

A kH value of >50 mg/L is adequate, but >100 mg/L is better. 

If your tank kH is low, test your source water kH. Some city and well systems have low kH coming in and will need buffers to be manually added to your system to maintain adequate levels. Keep an eye on your pH when manually adding buffers in order to make sure your pH will not change too much. Slow and steady is the goal for any pH changes.

Fish Bowls = Bad Idea

If you ask Leroy, he’d much prefer a tank with a filter, not a bowl

Unfortunately, fish bowls are antiquated technology still for sale on your pet store shelf today. It’s an idealized image handed down from Disney movies in our childhoods. Who doesn’t like the cozy image of a happy fish swimming around its bowl? Sorry to tell you that fish bowls are awful for fish. Fish kept as pets need more than a stagnant bowl to live happy, healthy lives. Even if your fish has been “perfectly fine and healthy for years in its bowl,” I guarantee it would thrive in a tank with filtration.

Imagine yourself living inside a clear, sealed box. It’s bare except for a chair. No restroom or showering facilities. No air circulation either. Food is delivered through a shoot daily. Once a week, maybe once every other week, housekeeping comes in and cleans up most of your waste, any leftovers and lets fresh air in. And that’s it until the next time they dain to show up. And you will live like this for 4-5 years if you’re lucky.

Sure, you’d probably be okay. You’d live, but you’d be miserable. 

It’s the exact same for a fish living in a bowl.

No circulation, limited housecleaning with no facilities.

Let’s put you in a roomy tank. Automatically, there’s more air to breathe than in the confines of your tiny bowl. You can get some exercise wandering about.

Adding a filter is the biggest change of all. The filter sucks up your waste and converts it into a compound that does not irritate you. It provides fresh air. You are significantly better off only having two major changes in your life.

Rather than a giant flush of fresh air every so often, once a week, a little bit of the old air is let out and new air comes in. Some of the excess waste gets removed. This is the equivalent of doing small water changes using a gravel siphon in your tank.

So, where would you rather live? In the claustrophobic trash dump with human waste all over and limited air to breathe? Or in the roomy, breathable, tidy room with extra space?

I think your fish would rather have the same. Surviving is not living. Allow your fish to thrive. #banthebowl

P.S. “But my betta fish is adapted to live in small puddles when the tides wash out! A bowl is perfect for him!” This is a survival mechanism for short-term survival, not a life plan. Bettas don’t deserve a bowl more than any other fish. For more info on betta fish, see our betta page.

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