Top 10 Mistakes New Fish Owners Make – #6

The #6 Mistake – Not Storing Fish Food Properly

What is the best way to store any pet food? Rather than roll up the bag and toss it in the corner, all pet food should be kept in an airtight, opaque storage container in cooler temperatures of a pantry or closet. And fish food is no exception.

Also keep in mind that fish food starts to lose water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C, as soon as you open it. Within a few months, there is barely any available vitamin C left. (Sources here, here and here.) Vitamin loss can be prevented by properly storing your fish food. All fish food should be kept in an airtight container, in a cool place out of the sun.

Fish Flakes

Due to their high surface to mass ratio, fish flakes lose vitamin C faster than any other fish food. If your fish can handle a pellet, switch them over. These days they come in very tiny sizes!

Fish Pellets

Most of these products now come in light-proof, re-sealing pouches, which is great! Keep them in a cool place out of direct sunlight to keep them in good condition.

Koi Food

Even though your koi live outside, your food should not! If it is not in a re-sealing bag, keep all food in an airtight container in a cool place, out of the sun.

Since the temperature of a koi pond can vary widely, make sure you are feeding a temperature-appropriate diet. Higher protein foods are fed with warmer water.

For more on fish nutrition, check out our Fish Food Nutrition webinar:

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Top 10 Mistakes New Fish Owners Make – #7

The #7 Mistake – Feeding Your Fish Too Much

One of the more common “healthy” pet issues we see in all of veterinary medicine is obesity, and fish are no exception. They may have better control than your golden retriever, but overfeeding your fish can have more severe consequences than just rounder fish.

Unfortunately, there is no absolute calculation to tell you how much to feed your fish. It depends on their species, temperature, water quality, other stressors, the type of food, formulation and current disease processes. For cats and dogs, it all depends on body size and life stage. If you take any bag of cat or dog food and look at the back, it will tell you what life stage the food is intended for and what amount to feed for body weight. (This assumes that your pet is the correct weight for the body type and structure.) But when was the last time you weighed your pet fish? Fish should be fed based on body size, but we know this is an impossible task for most owners. Thankfully, fish are pretty good at determining when they are full. A bigger problem is what happens when there is too much food in the tank.

So what should I do to ensure my fish are not overfed? We recommend using the 5-Minute Method. It is very simple:

  1. Sprinkle a little bit of food into your tank. We recommend mixing it close to the filter return so all fish can get a fair share.
  2. When all the food is eaten, sprinkle a little bit more. If the food is not completely consumed, WAIT.
  3. Continue for 5 minutes or until the fish stop eating.

NOTE: Some species, like betta fish, are not great at regulating their intake. Keep in mind that their stomachs are about the same size as their eyeballs. Only a few pellets once or twice a day is adequate!

Why does this method work?

The biggest problem with overfeeding a fish tank is not just fat fish, but increased stress on your biological filtration. The breakdown of fish food, since it contains a lot of protein, causes an increase in the ammonia levels in your tank. Using this method makes sure that the food ends up in the fish, not the bottom of their tank. If you’re unfamiliar with ammonia and the nitrogen cycle, read this explanation.

For more information on fish food in general, watch our webinar.

The Green Pea Myth

Constipated goldfish is the most widely over diagnosed case on the internet. There is not ONE peer-reviewed published paper about goldfish constipation and its treatments. Most commonly, goldfish “constipation” is misdiagnosed as a cure all for a sick fish. And in comes the main treatment… shelled green peas!

What is it about these tiny green globes of goodness that make most fish rise up from the almost dead?

One: They have almost no protein whatsoever, decreasing the amount of ammonia waste from your fish, decreasing the strain on your nitrogen cycle. Decreasing the ammonia waste from your system will make ANY fish better. Every 100 grams of green peas contains 5.4g of protein. Compare that to 100g of commercial fish flake and pellets having between 32-45g of protein.

Two: Green peas sink in water, therefore making fish dive to the bottom of their tank to eat, preventing excess air from ending up in their GI and swim bladder. Goldfish are physostomous, with a duct connecting their esophagus to their swim bladder. Considering the anatomy of some fancy goldfish varieties, these ducts are extremely short and therefore more air is able to get into the swim bladder, causing positive buoyancy issues. When fish eat at the surface, slurping food down like pigs, they can take in a lot of extra air. By feeding sinking peas, they don’t suck in as much air.

Three: Goldfish “indigestion” can be caused by an inappropriate diet. Goldfish, like all other carp, are omnivores, eating plants, bugs and almost anything tasty that fits in their mouths. In feeding them a flake or pelleted diet, you are aiming for a balanced diet. There are sooooo many fish foods out there, and a lot of them are based on educated guesses rather than actual research. As a fish owner, it is up to you to evaluate your fishes’ food to make sure it is appropriate. We have our most watched webinar on this very subject of reading fish food labels. Many of these “constipation” problems are from feeding very old food. After 6 months, your fish food has lost enough of the water-soluble vitamins, including vitamin C, that you are essentially feeding your fish cardboard. Getting a fresh bag of food, or switching the diet to our green peas (full of vitamins!), fixes almost all of the fish “indigestion” cases we see.

But what about all that fiber? 100g of peas contains 4.8g of fiber and most fish foods contain 3-5g of fiber, so it’s not really all that more fibrous.

All in all, peas are a low calorie treat that fish can enjoy. But are they magical, cure all tablets of greeny goodness? Sorry, but no.

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Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Everyone always wants to know how to keep their fish system from becoming infested with some horrible disease that puts all their fish at risk. Well, it’s a lot simpler than you think!

  1. Quarantine. Quarantine. Quarantine. This includes plants and ALL NEW FISH. The stress of handling and transport is enough to make even the healthiest of fish turn on your tanks inhabitants. Fish cannot be sterilized and always have pathogens on them, including parasites, bacteria and fungi. Most problems occur when new fish, invertebrates or plants are added to an established system. Set up a separate hospital tank and have it at the ready whenever new fish are on their way in. 4-6 weeks is the MINIMUM requirement for all new additions. For more information, be sure to watch our Quarantine Practices webinar!
  2. Maintain your water quality through consistent maintenance, proper feeding and adequate filtration. Water quality is the #1 thing owners can do to keep their fish healthy. Get a test kit, know how to use it and what normal parameters look like. Not all fish systems will be identical! Keep up with your maintenance. If everything is a bit discombobulated, use these handy checklists for tanks and ponds.
  3. Feed your fish a good quality diet that is species appropriate. Look for a food with appropriate levels of protein, fat and carbohydrates. We are happy to give consults on diet for FREE. If you want to learn more about fish diets, watch our webinar.
  4. Note any signs of disease early and take precautionary measures. You set up that hospital tank, right? Learn the physical and behavioral signs of disease in fish through our free webinar.
  5. If you think something is wrong, ASK NOW! Don’t wait until a small problem becomes big and hard to manage. Our job is to help you take care of your fish, plain and simple. We can work within your budget to make sure your fish get the care they need. Call us at (831) 346-6151 or email hospital@cafishvet.com.

Follow those rules and your fish will thank you! Being healthy and disease free is the way to be, no matter what your species!