Does my fish tank HAVE to have a substrate?

Does my fish tank HAVE to have a substrate?

Substrate in fish tanks refers to the gravel, rocks, sand, etc that is on the bottom of your tank. Certainly it increases your tank's aesthetic appeal, but do you really need it? The answer = no. "But it provides biological filtration!" Yes, your substrate does hold some of the friendly nitrogen-converting bacteria, but to a [...]

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Behavioral Signs of Disease in Fish

Behavioral Signs of Disease in Fish

Behavioral signs of disease are harder to spot for most fish owners than physical signs of disease. By watching your fishes' behavior consistently, for at least 5-10 minutes per day, you will be able to determine what is normal or abnormal for your fish. Some "fun fish quirks" may actually be a sign of a [...]

Freshwater Fish Flukes

Freshwater Fish Flukes

Given the common name of "flukes" by hobbyists, monogenean trematodes are one of the most common parasites we come across in freshwater fish. There are many species that can infect freshwater and marine species, but we mainly deal with the gyrodactylus and dactylogyrus. Mainly feeding on the external layers of skin and gill tissues, these [...]