Don’t Flush That Fish!

Don’t Flush That Fish!

It’s almost that time of year again, where many families will be bringing new pet fish into their homes as holiday presents. Unfortunately, many of these new endeavors tend to end disastrously. But this doesn’t have to be the case for YOU! With our helpful guide, your fish can live a long a happy life.

  1. Plan ahead. We all know the thrill of walking into the pet store and loading up on everything a fish could possibly want. You can still get that rush, but go in with a plan. Read this checklist to make sure you have everything you need to keep your fish happy for those first few critical weeks of life. Here’s how to set everything up once you’ve worked through your checklist.
  2. Understand how tank cycling works. New tank syndrome is the downfall of many holiday fish systems. By starting with a low bioload for the first few weeks, you will save yourself the hassle of having to start over. Buy a reliable test kit and watch your parameters closely.
  3. Plan out your maintenance schedule. We’ve generated a handy checklist, but be sure to put it on YOUR calendar. Here’s a step-by-step cleaning guide in case you need some help.
  4. Start with a beginner-friendly species, such as a betta or comet goldfish. Don’t go for the super picky, super specific species right off. Assume that any new fish might be carrying some bug from the pet store. Since they don’t stay there that long, disease signs may not occur until you get the fish home.
  5. Ask for help when you feel overwhelmed, and this does NOT mean scrolling through the internet! There is a TON of misinformation on the internet. Call your local fish professional and have their number ready, just in case. Our office fields calls from all over the country on a daily basis for people needing help with the next step. Call us if you need help –> (831) 728-7000.

By working through these 5 simple steps, you have ensured your holiday fish will be a member of the family through the next holiday season. Need more? Be sure to read through our Top 10 Mistakes All New Fish Owners Make.

And flushing dead fish is NOT a sanitary method of disposal. After you have made sure they are dead, through prolonged drug exposure or cervical spine separation, place dead fish in the trash or bury them at least 12″ in the yard. Putting almost dead fish in the freezer is not humane.

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Fish Immune Function

Fish Immune Function

When you live in a toilet, like fish do, it’s critical to have a well-functioning immune system. Being ectotherms, fish rely on the temperature of their surrounding environment to dictate their metabolism and immune function. Cold water = limited activity. Warm water = more activity. Hot water = poached. All things considered, a fish’s immune system may be more complex that you give them credit for.

In addition to basic phagocytosis, fish produce B and T lymphocytes. These cells are responsible for antibody production and are the reason why we are able to make vaccines for fish. Vaccines can be given orally, topically, by immersion, or through injection, like your flu shot. Most vaccines are available for aquaculture production and are not used on pet fish. For more information on vaccines in fish, read here.

Mammals produce their white blood cells in their bone marrow. Fish do not have bone marrow and rely on their kidney and spleen to produce blood cells. These cell lines have similar functions to mammalian white blood cells.

A fish’s response to stress has a direct effect on their immune system. When a fish is stressed due to lack of nutrition, bullying, poor water quality, sound irritation or multiple other causes, they release hormones into their bloodstream, specifically cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones initiate an animal’s “fight or flight” reflex, causing secondary changes in blood glucose, lactate, liver and muscle glycogen and osmolality. Over time, these chemical changes cause tertiary changes to behavior and performance, including digestion, reproduction, and immune function.

Acute stress is beneficial where it helps a fish get out of a stressful situation. Chronic stress, however, leads to long-term immune suppression and increased vulnerability to disease.

In order to maintain good immune function, use these key prevention and management strategies:

Rotting Eggs & Fish Don’t Mix

Rotting Eggs & Fish Don’t Mix

Have you ever been cleaning your pond, maybe pulling out dead plants, and smelled rotting eggs? This unfortunate smell is hydrogen sulfide, the product of anaerobic bacteria buried deep in the mud. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic to fish and can can death very quickly. Fish who are exposed suffer an increase in secondary infections from bacteria, parasites and fungi.

It is essential to remove your fish from the pond before undertaking any serious deep cleaning, especially into boggy areas with overgrown plants. Set aside a whole day to tackle your cleaning project and put your fish in a temporary tub with an airstone for the day. They will be fine for a few hours without filtration, but no more. Bring in extra help to make sure the project can be completed quickly. If you use a professional company to perform your cleanings, make sure they are aware of hydrogen sulfide and can provide the proper accommodations for your fish. Once all the plant material is removed, the pond must be drained to remove all hydrogen sulfide.

 

Top 10 Mistakes All New Fish Owners Make

Top 10 Mistakes All New Fish Owners Make

Keeping fish couldn’t be simpler! Get tank, add water and then add fish, right? Well, I’m sorry to say it just isn’t that easy. Here are the 10 top mistakes that all new fish owners make.

  • Not learning about fish prior to getting them.
    • You wouldn’t get a dog or a cat without some prior knowledge about what to expect, would you? Well, maybe you would, but it is not recommended. Just like adding a furry member to the family, do your research about your fish way before you purchase a tank. Once you know what kind of fish you want and how much maintenance you’re willing to do on a regular basis, you’ll know what size tank to get and what features you’ll need. Read up on what your fish will need to eat, how often and if all the fish you want will even get along in the same system.
  • Adding fish too early.
    • When you first start your system, it’s a clean slate. Brand new from the pet store, you excitedly want to fill it to the brim with fish. Do this, and your fish are guaranteed to die. New tanks need to cycle for a few days without anything in them to make sure that all the decor has been rinsed. Then, it’s time to start culturing your biologic filtration. Your biologic filtration is made up of millions of tiny bacteria living on your filter media pads, substrate and many other nooks and crevices. Best part is, they’re free! Your fish bring them with you when you add them; the trick is to start with a very low load of fish to get things started first. You can try adding bacterial starter, but with few exceptions, these are just a waste of money. Unless you are starting with pre-started media from another system, it will take 4-6 weeks to establish your filters.
  • Feeding too much.
    • All pet owners feed their pets their love. Cats, dogs and even fish can become obese very easily. It is harder for fish, since they use energy constantly to swim, but can happen all the same. If you are concerned about the amount of food your fish are getting, you can try to estimate the total weight of your fish and calculate an exact dose, or just feed slowly over a few minutes until they stop eating. Unlike your Labrador retriever, they will stop when they’re full.
  • Not testing your water.
    • Especially in the beginning, testing your water can be a frightening experience. Your ammonia will shoot up and keep climbing until your biologic filters are established. Regular water changes will help this from getting out of hand. Even if your tank is established, testing your water regularly will be a good indicator of how well you are maintaining your system. You should be testing the following parameters regularly: ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, pH, kH and temperature. Salinity is a must for any marine or brackish system. If you’d like more information about water quality, check out this quick reference sheet or our recorded webinar.
  • Not doing regular tank maintenance.
    • You didn’t think a fish tank would be any work? Sorry to tell you, but it’s just as much work as a fluffy pet. You need to take care of your system regularly by vacuuming up poop and debris, rinsing your filters to achieve adequate flow and changing out a percentage of the water. Here’s a helpful checklist of everything you need to do on a daily, weekly, monthly and yearly schedule.
  • Not storing your food properly.
    • Fish food loses a significant amount of nutritional value if stored improperly. Keep it in an airtight container out of the sun at room temperature. Toss any remaining food after 6 months, since after that time, most of the good water-soluble vitamins are gone. It does not make sense to buy food in bulk unless you are able to repackage it in a vacuum bag. Learn more about fish food in our awesome webinar.
  • Not understanding filtration.
    • In the fish world, some bacteria are good. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in your biological filtration (sponges/matting) help your fish live happy lives. So why would you throw out your filter media every month? The box told you to? Well, ignore the box. By tossing your filter media every month, you are only causing more problems and making more profit for filtration companies. Yes, they may look dirty, but it’s OKAY!! By making your filters pristine once a month, you are doing more harm than good.
  • Worrying too much about algae.
    • Fish tank = algae. Sorry, but there’s just no better home for algae than in a fish tank. Over time, your algae colonies will change depending on what your system behaves. As long as your tank doesn’t look like a giant hairball, your fish are probably fine. A quick, daily scrub will take care of most of it, but without a UV filter, it will just settle somewhere else. If you have a LOT of algae, try to cut down on its food source by feeding your fish less (see point above) or doing more water changes. Maybe try some aquatic plants to put those nutrients somewhere else? Algae will use the light to breathe during the day, but at night, it can suck the oxygen out of your water! Make sure to have adequate aeration so your fish don’t have to compete.
  • Rely too much on internet searches.
    • If it’s on the internet, it must be true, right? Well, sorry to tell all those two-headed alien babies that not everything you read on the internet is true. I’m sure everyone is looking out for your best interests, but a lot of these “home remedies” are untested with only one subject. Even in the same species, not all fish act the same and “normal” can vary widely across the 30,000+ species in the fish kingdom. Many of these quick fixes will help with the visual issue, but do not treat anything underlying that cannot be seen, such as husbandry and water quality. Always approach “miracle” cures on the internet with some skepticism.
  • Not asking for help when you’re in over your head.
    • No matter where you live, there is a professional who can help. Be they an expert hobbyist, maintenance company or veterinarian, there is someone who can help you! Don’t give up and throw in the towel! Our office covers California and Nevada, but there are fish veterinarians all over the world, ready to help you! If you think it’s a stupid question, I guarantee we’ve heard it before. We are just here to help! Call now! (831) 728-7000

 

“Reputable Dealers” Cannot Guarantee Healthy Fish

“Reputable Dealers” Cannot Guarantee Healthy Fish

Over the years, many of our clients have added fish to their pond without quarantine and denied any problems simply because the fish have come from a “reputable dealer.” Unfortunately, even our store, with some of the strictest quarantine guidelines, cannot guarantee our fish are 100% disease free.

Why is this? Well, keep in mind that fish live in a toilet. There are constantly pathogens on them, including bacteria, fungi and parasites. A healthy fish’s immune system works to constantly keep these invaders at bay, but they are always around in low numbers. This is why when water quality goes off the rails, we commonly see secondary infections. The stress of compensating for poor water decreases a fish’s immune function, allowing these pathogens to multiply and spread.

No dealer can 100% sterilize a fish. It would be cruel to even attempt it. But they should be able to keep you away from the worst. In fish, these are mainly viruses. Viruses, such as Koi Herpesvirus (KHV), can wipe out a pond very quickly. By ensuring a proper quarantine length and temperature duration, most dealers will catch infected fish and remove them from their purchasing pools. However, even if they say their protocol is one thing, unless you watch them go through this protocol, you cannot guarantee anything.

The only way to cover all your bases? Quarantine your fish yourself. A simple setup with separate equipment and filtration out of splashing range of your pond will guarantee that no sick fish are bringing anything into your pond. Read this article on quarantine or watch our webinar to make sure you can keep your fish healthy.

All ONLINE Fish Health Masterclass

All ONLINE Fish Health Masterclass

Due to the overwhelming success of our Wet Vet Weekend, we have modified our curriculum to make it available to ANYONE, ANYWHERE. We hope you can join us for our new Fish Health MASTERCLASS October 27 with separate lab program on November 3. Please see our class page for more information. Click here to register.

Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Everyone always wants to know how to keep their fish system from becoming infested with some horrible disease that puts all their fish at risk. Well, it’s a lot simpler than you think!

  1. Quarantine. Quarantine. Quarantine. This includes plants and ALL NEW FISH. The stress of handling and transport is enough to make even the healthiest of fish turn on your tanks inhabitants. Fish cannot be sterilized and always have pathogens on them, including parasites, bacteria and fungi. Most problems occur when new fish, invertebrates or plants are added to an established system. Set up a separate hospital tank and have it at the ready whenever new fish are on their way in. 4-6 weeks is the MINIMUM requirement for all new additions. For more information, be sure to watch our Quarantine Practices webinar!
  2. Maintain your water quality through consistent maintenance, proper feeding and adequate filtration. Water quality is the #1 thing owners can do to keep their fish healthy. Get a test kit, know how to use it and what normal parameters look like. Not all fish systems will be identical! Keep up with your maintenance. If everything is a bit discombobulated, use these handy checklists for tanks and ponds.
  3. Feed your fish a good quality diet that is species appropriate. Look for a food with appropriate levels of protein, fat and carbohydrates. We are happy to give consults on diet for FREE. If you want to learn more about fish diets, watch our webinar.
  4. Note any signs of disease early and take precautionary measures. You set up that hospital tank, right? Learn the physical and behavioral signs of disease in fish through our free webinar.
  5. If you think something is wrong, ASK NOW! Don’t wait until a small problem becomes big and hard to manage. Our job is to help you take care of your fish, plain and simple. We can work within your budget to make sure your fish get the care they need. Call us at (831) 346-6151 or email hospital@cafishvet.com.

Follow those rules and your fish will thank you! Being healthy and disease free is the way to be, no matter what your species!