Respect Your Betta

There is no fish that lacks respect in the fish kingdom than the amazing betta. Goldfish are a close second, but most people see betta fish as the easiest pet to care for. Just drop it in a vase and poof! Instant fish tank.

Our office gets a lot of calls about betta fish. I do a fair amount of work treating them for various illnesses, most often the misdiagnosed “fin rot.” “Fin rot” is nothing more than your betta is stressed out from dozens of potential causes. Guess what is #1? If you didn’t say “water quality,” read this and get back to me.

A happy betta in his tank

Let me tell you a secret. 95% of my betta calls can save their money by implementing the following changes:

  1. Add a heater.
  2. Add a filter.

Tah dah!

That is seriously how we fix 95% of our betta calls. We can tell you this on the phone for FREE. Well, actually we’ll tell you to visit this page on our website that outlines the exact same plan. If you don’t believe me, I can come to your house and tell you, but I’ll have to charge you.

Here’s how this magic fix works…

Most bettas are NOT kept in standard fish tanks. Everyone believes that what they see on Pinterest and Instagram with bettas in anything that can hold water is gospel. Yes, bettas have that specialized labyrinth organ that essentially acts as a primitive lung, allowing them to breathe air. HOWEVER, this is a short-term survival mechanism! It is not intended to be a way of life. It is the human equivalent of living in a spacious one-bedroom apartment with central air, heat and garbage disposal compared with living in a sealed elevator shaft. Sure, you’ll survive, but you won’t thrive.

And bettas are tropical fish, and therefore, need a heater. That’s about as simple as it is. 80-82F (26-28C) if you please!

Fish bowls are horrible homes for any fish. Get your pet a nice, filtered tank and use your bowl for something else. I recommend tropical beverages.

Proper use of fish bowl to hold fruity cocktail

Regarding betta fish as disposable pets starts now. If you are taking in a living, breathing (WATER) pet, you are responsible for giving it the best life possible. If you can’t get your betta a tank with a heater, feed it properly or take care of it, get a pet rock instead. You can paint it like a betta if you like.

Side note: bettas will eat enough pellets to stuff them end to end in one sitting. Keep in mind that their “stomach” is only as big as their eyeball. Only a few pellets per feeding. And no amount of green peas will save you once the big poo ball forms.

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How Not To Kill Your First Fish

How Not To Kill Your First Fish

It all starts out the same. Kid X begs for a puppy. Kid Y wants a kitty. You barter a fish to “see how it goes.” Tank gets set up, fish gets plunked in, and everything goes swimmingly… for about 2 weeks. Then all hell breaks loose and your fish dies. The tank is tossed and the fish forgotten.

It doesn’t have to be this way.

Follow these 4 simple steps and I guarantee that your fish will have a fighting chance!

1. The fish you bought at the pet store are probably already sick.

How do I know this? Given the rapid turn-over at the pet store, most commonly less than 48 hours, stores never know what fun diseases their fish are already carrying! White spot disease in particular is the most common. Only ONE of these little spots can spawn 1,000 babies! At warm temperatures, this can spiral into a pit of death and despair within days. If you see ANY fish in the store with suspicious white spots, dead or listless fish in the tank, go somewhere else or order online. Ask when then fish came in. If they have been there over a week, they are probably healthier. probably… THERE IS NO WHERE YOU CAN GO THAT WILL GUARANTEE HEALTHY FISH. It’s just not profitable; yes, I tried.

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2. Quarantine your new fish.

Yes, it’s a pain in the @$$. Yes, it takes away the instant gratification. But quarantining fish from different stores/batches/yard sales will keep disease from spreading. Ever watched one of those zombie movies where the virus spreads so quickly no one can do anything? It’s the same thing with your fish. You may have gotten lucky with the first batch of fish, but you’ll play Russian Roulette with any new additions. Get another tank, keep it far away from the first tank and USE SEPARATE EQUIPMENT! At least 4-6 weeks (shorter for warmer water). For full rules and restrictions, read this.

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3. New Tank Syndrome is the #1 cause of new fish death.

We are all obsessed with instant gratification. When you first get your tank, you want it full NOW! Well, sorry to say that this is just asking for a disaster. Newbie fish keepers are most likely unfamiliar with the NITROGEN CYCLE. This cycle keeps your fish ALIVE. There is no product you can buy to “short cut” this cycle. Our office tried a dozen products and ONLY ONE shortened the cycle by 1 week. 4-6 weeks MINIMUM are necessary to make your new fish home inhabitable. Starting with just a few fish will get your cycle up and running without sending your toxic ammonia on a mission to kill all your fish. Read this, memorize it and tell everyone you see about it. And you know that 1″ of fish per gallon is bull, yes?

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4. WATER CHEMISTRY

Dedicated followers have heard this before… many times. It’s the most popular topic on our website. Good water quality = happy, healthy fish. I can’t make it easier than that. Get a test kit and use it regularly. In the beginning, this will be DAILY. After your NITROGEN CYCLE is established, scale back to WEEKLY. If your system has remained unchanged in maintenance practices, equipment and fish for 3 months, you can maybe get away with MONTHLY.

Alright, rant over. Please value your fishes’ lives. It pains our service when these calls come in and it’s too late to help.

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Salt in Fish Systems

Salt is a normal component of many fish systems. Saltwater and brackish systems require salt on a continual basis. But what about freshwater systems? Some internet pages recommend keeping salt in koi/goldfish ponds/tanks at all times. Others say don’t bother. What are the effects of salt on an all-freshwater species?

In a freshwater environment, a fish’s body is more dense than the surrounding water. As a result, water is constantly trying to enter the fish’s body and achieve osmotic homeostasis. A fish’s gills, kidneys and urinary systems are responsible for removing the excess water. When these mechanisms are compromised, the clinical manifestation of “dropsy” can occur. By adding salt to the water, you are changing the osmolality of the environment surrounding the fish, thereby decreasing the amount of water diffusing into the fish. Some people figure this is less stressful for a fish, but after millions of years of evolution, it really isn’t necessary. A fish’s body can handle the metabolic demands of freshwater. It’s the human equivalent to drinking less water so your kidneys don’t have to work as hard.

Most salt-avid fish keepers will keep their fish in very low salinities: 1-1.5%. This level can be very hard to test accurately for and will often vary between 0-3%. This level will not hurt your fish. If you feel like you NEED to have salt in there, that’s fine, but you should not strive for levels greater than 2%. You do NOT HAVE to add salt to your freshwater fish system. Always add non-iodonized salt (not table salt)!

For some parasites, depending on the species and water temperature, higher therapeutic levels of salt can be used to treat the infestation. Salt works by first increasing, then depleting the mucus coat, which many parasites use as a food source and for protection. Once the mucus coat is gone, the single-celled parasites rupture from the changing osmotic gradient. But if you are slowly bringing your salt levels up without realizing it, some parasites have been found to become resistant to therapeutic salt levels, requiring treatment at even higher doses. The higher the salt dose, the harsher the treatment for the fish.

All in all, a little salt is fine, but don’t obsess over it. Your fish will do just fine without it. The only time we recommend salt is for recovery from trauma or surgery. Don’t forget that salt can kill aquatic plants!

Top Surgery Cases

Read along with us as we share our exceptional surgery cases!

Lemon

Lemon is a ranchu goldfish who was adopted with a slight oral deformity. Once day, when going after a large pellet, one side of her mouth luxated and obstructed her oral cavity. Dr. Sanders was able to correct the injury with a few well-placed sutures and Lemon was able to recover. Read more about her story here.

Rocky

We don’t know why he did it, but Rocky, a shovelnose catfish, decided that the rocks at the bottom of his tank looked particularly tasty. He ended up eating almost a pound of them and they got stuck in his stomach. Dr. Sanders performed surgery to open the stomach and remove the rocks. Read more about Rocky here.

Sparky

Our buddy Sparky presented with a HUGE tumor on his eye. Rather than trying to cut the tumor away from the delicate cornea, Dr. Sanders elected to remove the eye. Sparky healed up great and you can never even tell an eye was there to begin with. Read his full story here.

Want to watch some fun surgery videos? Check out our YouTube channel.

This koi had a coelomic tumor that required invasive surgery to remove.

Fish Bowl Syndrome

A common problem we see, especially in betta fish, is known as Fish Bowl Syndrome. Essentially, it can be broken down into one main issue:

Your fish is in a bowl.

Problem #1: Your fish has no filtration for processing of dangerous ammonia waste. Without a place for bacteria to grow and filter the water, your nitrogen cycle can never be established. Some may argue that betta fish get pushed around by filters, but if you chose the right one and slow the flow, it is perfectly suited to bettas.

Problem #2: You fish has no oxygen circulation. Fish tank filters are great at adding in oxygen, even in slow-flow mode. In a stagnant bowl, your fish is limited to what air diffuses from the surface. Yes, betta fish have a specialized labyrinth organ used to squeeze oxygen from the air. This is a short-term adaptation mechanism used to survive in drought conditions. It is NOT a long-term survival technique.

Problem #3: Your fish has no temperature stability. We’ll pick on betta fish again. Bettas are tropical and need heat. The small volume of a bowl causes temperatures to fluctuate dramatically. Watch the difference in ambient room temperatures on a 1-gallon fish bowl and a 10-gallon fish tank. It’s the same as you stepping out into freezing temperatures wearing a t-shirt or a coat.

Problem #4: When doing bowl water changes, most often, you will take your fish out of the bowl and put them in a tiny container while you empty all the water out of the bowl and scrub it clean. Since you have no filtration or oxygenation, you can swing the water chemistry parameters, including pH and temperature, very rapidly, causing your fish to stress and possibly die.

Fish bowls are ancient technology invented before there was electricity. With all the modern updates to fish-keeping, isn’t it time to let the fish bowls go? Unless, perhaps, you use them for this purpose:

#BANTHEBOWL

Spring Koi Checkup Package

Just like your cats and dogs, your pet fish can benefit from a yearly wellness exam. By bringing your vet in before you notice any issues, health problems can be caught earlier and treated more effectively. The spring months are the most common times of year when problems with koi occur. Save yourself the stress of trying to guess your koi issues and get it straight from the best trained source in California & Nevada.

Our Spring Pond Package for 2019 will have some new benefits for all pond owners. To schedule, call (831) 728-7000.

Tumor Screenings for Female Koi

With the increased incidence of gonadal sarcomas, we usually do not catch them in time, given their sneaky, lack-of-external, appearance. By implementing regular screening, we can find these tumors much earlier and fish can undergo life-saving surgery.

Watch a full tumor removing surgery.

Recommended Products for Koi Owners

With the closing of our store, the Fish Vet Store, we want to be able to provide our clients with all our best product recommendations. All Spring Pond Package clients will receive a 20oz bag of UltraBalance Maintenance koi food, an API Freshwater Master Test Kit + kH test kit, an infrared thermometer and a signed copy of Dr. Sanders’ book, Healthy Koi Made Easy.

Water Quality Screening

Fish health is directly linked to water quality. Our spring pond checks include full assessment of fish water quality parameters. If there’s an issue, our veterinarian will make recommendations to correct them quickly and easily.

Call (831) 728-7000 to schedule your Spring Pond Checkup today.

Top 5 Spring Diseases in Koi

It’s almost koi season at Aquatic Veterinary Services! Here are our most common diseases we can expect to see and the signs you should be aware of if any of these diseases are present in your pond.

5. Carp Pox

Although not THE koi herpes virus, carp pox is also known as cyprinid herpesvirus-1. It causes lesions within the skin that can look like “candlewax drippings” and “frosting” along the leading edges of the lips and fins. In cooler water temps, the lesions can be severe, but as the water warms, the fishes’ immune system and skin replacement can make the lesions almost vanish. Only in severe cases will a fish start to be compromised to secondary infections.

Since this is a herpes virus, there is no treatment or cure. If you have one fish in your pond that is showing these clinical signs, all of your fish have already been exposed. Only immune-compromised or stressed individuals will show clinical signs.

This is a very common disease for us to diagnose. Unless the case is severe, the fish will have good health, but will not be very pretty.

4. Monogenean Treamatodes (aka ‘flukes’)

These irritating little worms are most commonly gyrodactylus or dactylogyrus species. They can infiltrate the skin or gills and cause severe irritation for any fish. You will most commonly see signs of skin irritation, with increased redness on paler fish, bruises or missing scales.

Since fish cannot itch themselves like a cat or dog, they exhibit a behavior known as “flashing.” Usually, you will see your fish throw themselves sideways along the sides or bottom of their pond in an attempt to dislodge these irritable invaders.

Severe infestations can cause the gills to shut down and death to occur. There are many over-the-counter medications that will claim to take out these bugs. Please keep in mind that these medications are not controlled or overseen by any government checks. A veterinarian can prescribe a prescription-strength medication to take care of your problem safely and easily.

Boo & Bubbles: A Visit From the Fish Vet

3. Gondal Sarcomas

Unfortunately, we often do not catch these tumors in time for surgery. Females between 8-12 years of age seem particularly more susceptible. Our Spring Pond Package for 2019 will include ultrasound screenings for all females since we are trying to catch this disease early.

The only physical sign you may see is a slightly enlarged, perhaps asymmetrical, body shape.

These space-occupying tumors most likely start from female gonadal tissue. By the time they are visible externally, most of the internal organs are failing. These masses are very hard to catch, which is why our new screening system will be started this year. If caught early, the tumor can be removed via surgery.

2. Trichodina

This aggressive “scrubbing bubble” is often aided by our #1 disease in koi. We tend to see this parasite most commonly, often displaying the same “flashing” behavior as our monogenean friends.

This parasite is easily treated by our prescription-strength medication. Over-the-counter medications do not work well against this parasite for some reason.

1. Water Quality

I know it is not a “disease,” but poor water quality is the #1 diagnosis for disease I make. Having poor water quality makes all diseases WORSE, including bacteria, fungi, parasites and other pathogens.

Water quality is directly linked to fish health. Like the air we breathe, the water a fish swims in has a direct effect on their overall immune function. Before the spring diseases come, get your maintenance routine overhauled and test your water chemistry regularly to make sure your fish have their best chance for a healthy spring.

Day 2,190 – Reflecting Upon 6 Years

Tomorrow, March 13th, 2019 will mark Aquatic Veterinary Service’s 6 year anniversary. It has been quite a year for us, moving out of a bad location into a new facility and getting ready for some new changes and challenges. We’ll be sharing those new updates with you later this week.

In a business where there is no framework, no forecast, no front runner to look at and play off of, you make a lot of mistakes. I have no regrets from any of the mistakes I made along the last 6 years. I only hope I can pass on what I have learned to the next generation of aquatic veterinarians.

In the veterinary community, veterinarians who are able to practice on fish are exceedingly rare. In most veterinary schools, aquatic topics are barely covered, if at all. When I went to Tufts, we had 2 lecture hours on fish. We had 4 on marine mammals for comparison. But most veterinarians out practicing may have no exposure to fish. Of all the veterinarians who see fish, most are involved in mixed private practice, aquarium/zoo work or aquaculture. Those private practices seeing only fish – 2. Myself and a colleague in Texas are the only two veterinarians in the country dedicated to solely helping pet fish.

As our yearly reflection goes, I will answer the most common questions I have been answering on a regular basis.

Question #1: Do you make any money doing this?

Our first few years? Not really. Our last few years as we continue to grow and word gets out. Absolutely, yes. If this job path didn’t show at least minimal feasibility after the first few years, I wouldn’t be here today. In growing a business that has NEVER been attempted before, one has to be aware that it will take considerable more time. We’re in the business of changing how people think about veterinary care, which is a slow process. The general population knows to take a sick cat, dog, horse, bunny or snake to the vet. It is still not common knowledge to take your fish to the vet.

In conclusion, I am making money. It’s not comparable to a small animal vet at this point, but if our trends continue as they have over the next few years, we will surpass them. It’s a marathon, not a sprint.

Question #2: Why are you doing this?

I got into aquatics when I was in undergraduate school at URI. I had time to complete >1,500 volunteer hours at Mystic Aquarium, where I learned all about the fascinating world of fish. I always wanted to learn more about their care and keeping. I entered veterinary school figuring I’d end up at an aquarium, but I was hesitant to be a part of a bureaucratic system. In private practice, one of the best parts is I get to call the shots. From what I have seen over the last 6 years, there is a great need for fish veterinarians. The biggest hurdle is linking sick fish with veterinary care, not the internet. For more on my background, read our famous article, “Why A Fish Vet?”

Question #3: What is the biggest challenge in your field of veterinary medicine?

Dr. Google has never received a medical degree of any kind. Still, owners trust the internet more than a veterinarian’s perspective. Why? Because it costs real money. Sorry, but you get what you pay for. Free advice without any education or expertise ends up in a lot of dead fish. New fish owners are the worst offenders and will often drop out of the hobby entirely after the first big disaster. Now, many of these people simply don’t know that fish veterinarians exist. We have tried to build up our website to catch these people before they fall down the internet rabbit hole, and after 6 years and 200 fish articles, it’s starting to gain speed. For those of you regular readers, we rely on you to share your knowledge of fish veterinarians with your friends, family and neighbors. Our specialty will continue to struggle because no one knows we exist.

Question #4: What is the best thing fish owners can do to keep their fish healthy?

“Maintain your water quality” will likely be my catchphrase for life. Maintaining your aquatic environment for your fish is the most significant contribution to your fishes’ overall health. It comes down to keeping up with your regular maintenance. Most problems occur when people get lazy and skip a cleaning, or two, or all of them. We recommend you put it on the calendar and make it a priority. For everything you’d ever want to know about water quality, check out this free webinar.

So as we cross into our 7th year of service, we thank all of you for your continued interest. We strive to help all fish owners, no matter what the species or where you are. If you have any topics you would like discussed, please let us know. We thank you for your dedication to fish health.

Sincerely, Jessie Sanders, DVM, CertAqV

Interested to see how veterinary and human medicine education measure up? Watch Dr. Jessie Sanders and her sister, human surgeon, Dr. Bailey Sanders, compare their experiences.

Top 5 Most Common Problems with Koi Ponds

Koi make up the majority of our veterinary practice, and in seeing so many cases, some common themes occur. Don’t make the same mistakes with your fish!

  1. Not Checking Your Fish Daily – We know in the winter, when metabolisms are quiet, your fish are not very entertaining. However, even in the slower, winter months, small problems can start to grow very quickly, especially when the weather starts to warm. Even though you may not be feeding your fish daily, it is critical to check on all the fish DAILY to make sure they are doing okay.
  2. Not Testing Your Water Quality – This rule does not apply to fish tanks alone. Koi ponds can suffer the same New Pond and Old Pond syndromes and a whole host of other issues. Water quality is the #1 important factor in fish health and is the leading cause of secondary disease. Buy a test kit, learn how to use it, and keep track of how your pond changes with the seasons. Learn more about water quality here.
  3. Adding New Fish without Quarantine – This year will have a significant increase in Koi Herpes Virus cases. Protect your fish by quarantining ALL NEW FISH for at least 4-6 weeks. DO NOT expect your dealer/vendor to do this for you. Most parasite outbreaks come from new fish being added to a pond without quarantining first. Watch our Koi Herpes Virus webinar here.
  4. Feeding an Appropriate Diet – There are many, many, many different koi foods available and they are NOT all created equal. Read through the ingredient list carefully and understand what all the different nutrition labels mean. Watch our helpful webinar so you can make the best choice for your fish. Maintenance, Growth, Color-Enhancing, etc do NOT mean the same thing throughout the different brands. And “nucleotides” is a completely idiotic label. Do you know what nucleotides are?
  5. Keeping Up with Your Maintenance – In winter, we know things slow down and maintenance routines can relax. However, this is not an excuse to completely ignore your pond! You should at MINIMUM keep up with your backwashes to keep your pressurized bead filters functioning properly and keep your skimmer and matting free of debris. Click here for a complete checklist of pond tasks.

If you have ANY concerns about your koi at ANY time, contact your local aquatic veterinarian. If you are in California or Nevada, call us at (831) 278-1081. We will have our Spring Pond Package ready to roll as soon as spring hits. Schedule your visit today!!

Top 10 Mistakes New Fish Owners Make – #2

The #2 Mistake – Not Doing Your Regular Maintenance

Fish are not maintenance free pets. Many owners think this when they first start, but some fish systems require the same care and cleaning as any other pet. Especially when you are first starting out, it is important to keep up with your regular scheduled cleaning. Maintaining a regular maintenance schedule for your aquarium will be of the most benefit to your fish by keeping your water quality within appropriate parameters.

Our best advice: add your regular maintenance to your TO DO list and make it a priority. Get the whole family involved and take the time to give your fish a happy, healthy home. Here is a helpful checklist for everything you need to do on a daily, weekly, monthly and yearly basis.

If you follow the above checklist, get the family involved and make fish care a priority, your fish will have a long, happy life. If you’re confused or unsure the best way to clean your tank, watch our Best Tank Cleaning Practices video.