Top 10 Mistakes New Fish Owners Make – #6

The #6 Mistake – Not Storing Fish Food Properly

What is the best way to store any pet food? Rather than roll up the bag and toss it in the corner, all pet food should be kept in an airtight, opaque storage container in cooler temperatures of a pantry or closet. And fish food is no exception.

Also keep in mind that fish food starts to lose water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C, as soon as you open it. Within a few months, there is barely any available vitamin C left. (Sources here, here and here.) Vitamin loss can be prevented by properly storing your fish food. All fish food should be kept in an airtight container, in a cool place out of the sun.

Fish Flakes

Due to their high surface to mass ratio, fish flakes lose vitamin C faster than any other fish food. If your fish can handle a pellet, switch them over. These days they come in very tiny sizes!

Fish Pellets

Most of these products now come in light-proof, re-sealing pouches, which is great! Keep them in a cool place out of direct sunlight to keep them in good condition.

Koi Food

Even though your koi live outside, your food should not! If it is not in a re-sealing bag, keep all food in an airtight container in a cool place, out of the sun.

Since the temperature of a koi pond can vary widely, make sure you are feeding a temperature-appropriate diet. Higher protein foods are fed with warmer water.

For more on fish nutrition, check out our Fish Food Nutrition webinar:

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Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Preventing Disease in Fish Tanks and Ponds

Everyone always wants to know how to keep their fish system from becoming infested with some horrible disease that puts all their fish at risk. Well, it’s a lot simpler than you think!

  1. Quarantine. Quarantine. Quarantine. This includes plants and ALL NEW FISH. The stress of handling and transport is enough to make even the healthiest of fish turn on your tanks inhabitants. Fish cannot be sterilized and always have pathogens on them, including parasites, bacteria and fungi. Most problems occur when new fish, invertebrates or plants are added to an established system. Set up a separate hospital tank and have it at the ready whenever new fish are on their way in. 4-6 weeks is the MINIMUM requirement for all new additions. For more information, be sure to watch our Quarantine Practices webinar!
  2. Maintain your water quality through consistent maintenance, proper feeding and adequate filtration. Water quality is the #1 thing owners can do to keep their fish healthy. Get a test kit, know how to use it and what normal parameters look like. Not all fish systems will be identical! Keep up with your maintenance. If everything is a bit discombobulated, use these handy checklists for tanks and ponds.
  3. Feed your fish a good quality diet that is species appropriate. Look for a food with appropriate levels of protein, fat and carbohydrates. We are happy to give consults on diet for FREE. If you want to learn more about fish diets, watch our webinar.
  4. Note any signs of disease early and take precautionary measures. You set up that hospital tank, right? Learn the physical and behavioral signs of disease in fish through our free webinar.
  5. If you think something is wrong, ASK NOW! Don’t wait until a small problem becomes big and hard to manage. Our job is to help you take care of your fish, plain and simple. We can work within your budget to make sure your fish get the care they need. Call us at (831) 346-6151 or email hospital@cafishvet.com.

Follow those rules and your fish will thank you! Being healthy and disease free is the way to be, no matter what your species!

The Truth About Aquatic Plants

The Truth About Aquatic Plants

To plant or not to plant? As is the dilemma facing most freshwater tank and pond owners. Live plants can add beauty and filtration, but come with their own set of issues. If you are interested in pursing adding live plants to your system, be sure to read through the following points.

WAIT! I was told you can’t have plants in koi ponds! No matter what the purists say, you can absolutely have plants and koi together. You can also mix koi and goldfish, but that’s another article.

  • Your system needs to be producing nitrate in order for plants to thrive. If you constantly use an ammonia-binding additive or have a brand new tank, hold off on adding any plant life. Buy yourself a test kit and make sure your nitrogen cycle is established prior to getting those plants in there.
  • Plants can carry pathogens, especially if they were previously housed with fish. That means they need to be quarantined too! Set them up in your quarantine with a few fish to signal if there are any issues. You can also do a hydrogen peroxide dip that will take care of most bugs.
  • You will need to trim your plants regularly as parts die off. If you leave the rotting bits in your tank, you’re only making your ammonia levels worse. Make trimming your plants a regular part of your weekly maintenance and your system will thank you.
  • Fish will try to eat your plants. It doesn’t matter if you feed them the most awesome food on the planet, they will harass your plants if they’re simply bored. Don’t get too attached. You can try to create a buffer zone between plants and fish using mesh or netting. But, be prepared for some losses.
  • If you’re expecting a few plants to significantly decrease your nitrate levels, you will be sadly mistaken. The amount of plants you need to make a dent in your water quality is immense. If you want to use plants for filtration, consider adding a bog filter for ponds or an aquaponic system. Don’t expect those three fronds of anacharis to do the trick.
  • Any medications or treatments you add to the tank or pond will affect the plants. Salt treatments in particular can kill plants. However, if there is a disease in your system, the plants could be harboring pathogens. If you have a disease that could be hiding in your plants, make sure you treat the entire system appropriately. With some diseases, replacing the plants entirely may be the best option.

If you have any interest in adding plants to your system, but aren’t quite sure what to add, please call The Fish Vet Store at 831-728-7003

New Location, Same Services

New Location, Same Services

Over the last few weeks, our staff has been undergoing the major task of relocating our hospital and sister store, The Fish Vet Store. This includes ALL of our veterinary equipment, tanks and, of course, fish! We are very excited to make the move to our new facility at 440 Airport Blvd in Watsonville, CA. Our new location has a great space for our hospital and holding tanks. Rather than scattering multiple tanks over 3 floors, we have everything in one room with easy access to all our new systems.

Even with our move, our services and store stock has not changed. The Fish Vet Store will still offer a wide variety of products for both tanks and ponds. If you can’t make it to our new location, we continue to offer FREE delivery within all of Santa Cruz County. Our veterinary services will continue to serve both California & Nevada.

Please help us in celebrating our new facility. We will be holding an open house event later this summer.

The “Dropsy” Myth

The “Dropsy” Myth

A very common word in the fish hobby is the term “dropsy.” What does this term mean?

Well, to start off, “dropsy” is NOT a disease. “Dropsy” describes a condition where a fish’s body balloons outward and their scales start to stick out, looking like a pinecone. This syndrome is caused by excess water in the body cavity or coelom. Excess water collects in the skin between the scales and around the internal organs causing the traditional “dropsy” appearance.

This presentation is merely a sign of poor kidney function. Freshwater fish live in an environment that is less dense than their bodies. Through passive diffusion, water is constantly trying to even out the fish’s density by pulling water into the body tissues, mainly the skin and gills. A freshwater fish’s kidney works very hard to remove excess water and pass it back out into the environment with other waste. If the kidneys are not functioning correctly, water is not removed effectively and the fish starts taking on water.

Many different disease processes can cause this syndrome, including stress from poor water quality, inadequate diet, tankmate aggression, tumors, parasites, viruses and bacteria. “Dropsy,” or more clinically edema, is simply a sign that there is something wrong affecting the kidneys and not a specific disease process.

When your fish takes on this appearance, don’t assume it will be corrected by dumping in antibiotics. Not only is this harmful to your fish, but it gives owners unnecessary exposure to the drugs as well. Not to mention that all OTC fish meds are not controlled or evaluated in ANY way. Start by checking your water parameters, evaluating your fish’s diet and making sure no on is picking on them. If you do not find a clear cause, contact your local fish veterinarian.

Troubleshooting Fish Systems

Troubleshooting Fish Systems

Many of the fish issues we see at Aquatic Veterinary Service condense down to one thing: ineffective husbandry. Most of the time, it is not the owners fault and they receive false information from many conflicting sources. Well, we’re here to set the record straight and make it easy to take care of your fish. The better care your fish receive, the better their overall health and fewer calls to the veterinarian!

Fish Troubleshoot #1: Test your water.

For those of your loyal followers, you know how important water quality is to fish health. Most of the issue we see would have been avoided completely if the water parameters had been maintained. Test kits are available for cheap and are very easy to run. At the first sign of distress: CHECK YOUR WATER!

Fish Troubleshoot #2: Water changes.

All fish systems need regular water changes. I don’t care what that internet forum told you. If you imagine the wild fish populations, their water is never stagnant or contained. It is constantly flowing in, out, up and around. Fish kept in ponds and tanks are in artificial systems. They require new water every once in awhile to flush out not only nitrogen products, but hormones and other waste that is impossible to see with the naked eye. Never done one before? Well, we’ve created a helpful guide to show you the way.

Fish Troubleshoot #3: Clean your damn tank.

Are fish low maintenance? Well, you don’t need to walk them or potty train them, but they do require regular care and maintenance. If you do a little bit weekly, it will make the whole process easier. A cleaning protocol should include: scrubbing walls, removing waste and excess food, rinsing filter media and cleaning decor. We have handy checklists for both ponds and tanks that you can tweak to create your perfect protocol.

Fish Troubleshoot #4: Temperature.

Fish are ectotherms. This means that unlike your fluffy mammalian pets, they cannot regulate their internal body temperature. Their body temperature, with the exception of larger ocean-dwelling fish, will be the same as the water temperature. Different species of fish have specific tolerances for temperature. Goldfish and koi, can survive in just above freezing temperatures all the way up to 90F! However, some tropical fish can only do 77-83F. Know your species temperature tolerance and make sure you have a good thermometer in the tank at all times. And stick on ones do not count!

Fish Troubleshoot #5: Diet.

Not all fish eat the same things! Commercial diets might seem all-inclusive, but these can be misleading. Some fish can be very picky eaters while others would eat your tires if given the opportunity. Research the diets of your fish and if you can’t find any conclusive information, try to offer variations including pellets, vegetables, fruit, bugs and frozen diets. Flakes are great for small fish, but graduate them to pellets as soon as possible. Pellets have less surface to mass ratio, meaning that all the nutrients won’t be leached out as soon as they hit the water! Many food packages are labeled with an expiration date, but this applies only if you don’t open the bag. As soon as a bag or jar is opened, you must toss the remainder after 6 months. After 6 months, a lot of the vitamin content has broken down, so you’re essentially feeding cardboard.

Fish Troubleshoot #6: Personality clashes.

Just like people, cats and dogs, not all fish will get along with each other. Usually, this comes down to species territoriality, but we see it result in fighting over food, space and mates, often resulting in injury and death. When setting up a tank, always make sure the fish you’d like to home together will get along or have enough room to feel safe. If aggression develops over time, you will need to rehome the bullied or the bullier. Unfortunately, there is no effective behavioral therapy for fish… yet.

Stick to these key points and your fish will be happy and healthy for years to come!

Barley Straw in Koi Ponds – What’s it all about?

Barley Straw in Koi Ponds – What’s it all about?

If you have any experience with keeping koi in large outdoor ponds, you’ve had some experience with algae. Controlling it is not always an easy task. Throughout your struggles, you’ve probably heard something about barley straw and extract. How does this work and what’s it all about?

The Science Behind Barley Straw

The exact mechanism of how barley straw works is still unknown. As the barely straw breaks down, it releases compounds that keeps algae from growing, especially string-type algae. Although it will stop the growth of algae, it will NOT kill it. Killing algae will need an additional UV filter or chemical additives.

Is it safe for fish?

Barley straw is the safest algae deterrent available for koi ponds. Adding barley with a UV light will take care of the bulk of your algae problems.

What is the difference in the formulations?

Most products involving barley come in three forms: hay bales, pellets or liquid. The hay bales should be kept in a mesh bag to keep the individual straws from floating into your filtration. Pellets are usually compressed hay in shorter lengths. Both the full bales and pellets will take 3-5 weeks to start being effective. The barely straw needs to be broken down in order to start stopping algae. Liquid extracts bypass this step by doing the breakdown in advance.

When should I add this to my pond?

The best time of year to add barley is before your warmer months and throughout the summer. By starting to use the barley straw prior to the biggest algae growth season, you can stop growth before it starts. Read the instructions carefully on any product before you start to use it.